Category Archives: Web

Free Media Resources

First, Understanding Media Rights

What are the differences between Creative Commons, royalty-free, copyright-free, rights-managed, and public domain media resources?

You can also click individual section titles to expand or close them separately.

What is a copyright?

“Copyright is a form of intellectual property protection provided by the laws of the United States. Copyright protection is available for original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible form, whether published or unpublished. The categories of works that can be protected by copyright laws include paintings, literary works, live performances, photographs, movies, and software….

It’s important to understand that copyright law covers the “form of material expression,” not the actual concepts, ideas, techniques, or facts in a particular work. This is the reason behind why a work must be fixed in a tangible form in order to receive copyright protection. A couple examples of works being fixed in a tangible form include stories written on paper and original paintings on canvas….the Copyright Act gives the copyright owner certain exclusive rights, including the right to:

  • Reproduce the work
  • Prepare “derivative works” (other works based on the original work)
  • Distribute copies of the work by sale, lease, or other transfer of ownership
  • Perform the work publicly
  • Display the work publicly

-from FindLaw article, What Is a Copyright?

Other reading:

“Copyright free” is not a legal term and is often misused. Work that can be described as “copyright free” is simply work not protected by a current copyright. The term is often mistakenly and incorrectly used in place of “royalty-free,” but these are completely different concepts and not interchangeable in any way. Describing work as “copyright free” is another way of identifying work within “public domain,” which is free to use and modify.

reference: “Royalty Free or Copyright Free? Are They the Same?” – Public Domain Sherpa

First let’s define a royalty.

A royalty is a per-use contractual fee that is paid to an author/creator/artist/copyright-holder for the use or reproduction of the copyrighted work.

Types of fee-based reuse licensing are either “rights-managed” or “royalty-free”.

Rights-managed royalties are typically specific to type, location, and frequency of use, and as such, each time the work is used, a separate royalty fee must be paid to the copyright holder.

Royalty-free use is a type of contract or licensing that typically allows a one-time fee under a set of usage guidelines so that the licensee (user) can use the work in perpetuity without additional charges as long as there is adherence to those contractual guidelines.

*It is important to note that “royalty free” does NOT equate to “free.” Nor does it equate to “copyright-free.” In fact, the presence of any royalty licensing fee means that an entity is paying to use/reproduce copyrighted work at least once.

good reference article: “The Difference between ‘Royalty-free’ and ‘copyright-free’ – Making a Mark

What is Creative Commons and how do I interpret the licenses?

“Creative Commons (CC) is a global nonprofit organization that enables sharing and reuse of creativity and knowledge through the provision of free legal tools” (copyright “use” licenses with varying levels of protections for copyright holders). This tiered licensing allows creators to comfortably and easily “share” their work by assigning an appropriate CC license that best suits the creator’s legal needs while also allowing others to reuse their work. You can view many of their platform partners on the CC site to see where you can download CC materials. 

At the time this post was written, there are six tiered CC license options that basically fall under two categories: 1) any use + 2) Non-Commercial Use. There are three licenses within each of those two categories:

  1. Attribution “lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.”
  2. Attribution-ShareAlike…Same as above, but users must also license their new creations under the creator’s identical terms. “All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use.”
  3. Attribution-NoDerivs “license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.”
  4. Attribution-NonCommercial…same as “Attribution” but it disallows any commercial use at all.
  5. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike…same as “ShareAlike” but it disallows any commercial use at all.
  6. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs…same as “NoDerivs” but it disallows any commercial use at all.

The language above is summarized from their “human-readable” non-legalese language. To understand important details before using or designating your own work with a CC license, though, you should read their “legal-code” documents, which is more specific and binding. For a complete explanation of CC licenses, visit their About the Licenses page

*It is noteworthy that creators can license material under other licenses in addition to the CC license (a practice commonly referred to as “dual licensing”), as long as the other license does not conflict with the CC license. For example, creators can offer material to the public under a NonCommercial license, but offer commercial permissions to fee-paying customers through some other agreement.

IMPORTANT! Just because you are learning about copyright rules doesn’t mean that everyone else cares about them. If you find work licensed under a Creative Commons license, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the “creator” did not poach from protected copyrighted material. If CC licensed work inappropriately includes unpermitted work protected by someone else’s copyright, you can potentially still be liable for misusing it without proper permission.

See the “royalty-free” question above to learn about rights-managed royalties.

Basic Definition

Simply put, work that falls under the public domain lacks a current copyright. 

Typically, work that lacks a copyright does so because it has expired or because it is so old that it preceded copyrights.

How can I be sure something is Public Domain?

To know definitively if a copyright has expired or not, there are a few ways you can find out. First, it is important to know precisely when the work was created since there are several complex rules that determine copyright eligibility and expiration dates

Doing the Research Yourself

  • Anything published prior to 1923 is within the Public Domain. This detail is the only way to know for certain that something is in public domain without doing further research.
  • Anything published 1923 and later should be researched if you are using the work commercially or if you are using a significant portion of it in a non-transformative way. Another terrific resource for helping you get started with this research is the “Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States” page of the Cornell University Library.
  • Renewal records for works published from 1950 to the present are available online at
  • Researching works published before 1950 can be performed at the Copyright Office in Washington D.C. or possibly at a Federal Depository Library.

Paying Someone to Research a Copyright

You can also contact the Copyright Office to check renewal information for you, at a charge of about $150 per hour. (Reference & Bibliography department: 202-707-6850.) You can also hire a private copyright search firm to see if a renewal was filed.

What is Fair Use  and what does it mean for me?

The Fair Use clause (#107) within the U.S. Copyright Act is simultaneously specific and also somewhat ambiguous in its limitations to copyright protections. The Fair Use clause aims to enrich public discourse by allowing limited “reproduction” and citation of copyrighted material for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. The only specific considerations the clause gives are the following factors:

  1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

It is widely accepted that these considerations allow for citation and brief sampling of work for academic and non-commercial use as long as the use does not adversely compete with and affect the commercial viability of the copyrighted material. For instance, if a professor reproduces a significant portion of a copyrighted course material for distribution to students, this might be considered infringement if this activity discourages students from purchasing media with a licensed reproduction of the work. But if a student cites passages of that same work as support for a term paper, it would be acceptable fair use by the standards above since it is for research with non-commercial applications and since it will not impact the work’s marketplace competitiveness. 

While many people will try to quantitatively define what percentage of a work is acceptable to reproduce without permission, the law remains purposefully unclear to retain flexibility on a case-by-case basis. A very good example is in the 2016 case of Cambridge Press vs. Georgia State University, where three publishers sued the school over its pervasive posting of digital excerpts to the library reserves. In this case the lower court ruling took all four of the above Fair Use guidelines into consideration, and the judge used a 10% line-in-the-sand to determine what was an excessive violation of the Fair Use clause. But upon appeal, a higher court found fault with the district court’s arithmetic methodology, determining that fair use decisions must be conducted on a case-by-case basis instead of setting a percentage precedent. After reconsidering the appeal and weighting the clause’s factors differently, the district court still ruled mostly in GSU’s favor, but they still cited 5 of the 99 instances in the suit to be in violation of Fair Use.

The third factor above is one where the concept of “transformative use” comes into play. This is one where courts have had uniquely complex decisions to make about whether or not infringement has occurred based on how much someone changes the original copyrighted work while using it in their own work.  A well publicized example of this type of infringement is Shepard Fairey ‘s “Hope” poster of President Obama. The Associated Press (AP) sued Fairey for using a cropped version of one of its copyrighted photos for significant monetary gain without first getting permission to do so and without “transforming” the image enough to transcend the original image’s representation. This is an example of how artistic appropriation can quickly go from being perceived as cultural commentary and artistic expression to a form of theft once commercial considerations come into play. Had the poster not generated over $400,000 in revenues, the AP might have merely sent a Cease and Desist order to prevent its further unpermitted usage (or even simply done nothing at all).

Although the “Hope” case was settled between the two parties, it still did not definitively define the quantitative level of “transformation” that is required by a creator to make the new work original and not illegally derivative. The law purposefully remains a grey area so that cases are open to qualitative judicial interpretations. So when the question is asked, “How much do I have to change something to use it without permission or attribution?”, the answer is still open to interpretation. The best answer is to genuinely evaluate the new work from an honest perspective and determine whether or not the underlying meaning of the original work has been significantly changed through its inclusion and how much the new work relies on the original’s meaning or representation to carry the weight of the new work. Parody and satire will often have somewhat different standards, but this general rule still applies. And when it comes to making work that you expect to be significantly commercially viable, it is safe to assume that the standard is much, much higher. If there might be any commercial gain from the reuse, you should get permission first if there is not a clear Creative Commons license that outlines its use guidelines.

Excellent Fair Use Resources for Faculty

The University of Denver has a great resource of best and bad practices for faculty academic Fair Use. I strongly recommend you check it out if you are a faculty member and want to know what is generally considered to be safe. Additionally, the University of Texas Libraries site has a very good Copyright Crash Course section that goes into detail and can answer questions you might have.

Finally, here’s a link to a checklist that might help you decide if you are using copyrighted material within the Fair Use scope: the Teach Act checklist.

What is “attribution” and how do I give it?

Including “attribution” in your work is to give explicit credit to authors of other works you used in the creation of your own piece. Attribution typically includes the title of the work, the name of the author, the type of license it has, and a link to the original work and to the author’s profile if possible. The medium of your own work will also often dictate what is appropriate for giving credits, and the creator’s license will sometimes explain how you should give credit.

If using a Creative Commons resource, you can use their guidelines for giving attribution.

For some websites, there are browser extensions, such as Open Attribute, that work well for copying the attribution information that is gathered from the resource’s metadata. Flickr’s creative commons resources work well with this tool.

Some other websites, will have a page about licensing that will give you tips on how to credit their creators’ resources, such as the licensing page for

To give attributions at the end of a video in a credit role, they can be as simple as following some of these guidelines.

What is considered “commercial use”?

“Commercial use” and “Non-commercial use” are defined within specific legal contracts, so there is actually no binding, catch-all definition out there that draws safe boundaries for these terms. You have to look at the specific licensing contract for each copyrighted item out there before ascertaining what “commercial” means and how it impacts your intended use of the copyrighted property.

To understand the Creative Commons organization’s interpretation of “Non-Commercial” use, you can go straight to the horse’s mouth and read their explanation. But even then, some people feel that creators might find themselves in ambiguous territory should a problem actually arise later. And users can also find it confusing about what’s acceptable usage depending on how the website provides licensing info and whether or not the creator has tried to tack on additional stipulations for use

To better navigate using and interpreting how one can reuse CC non-commercial properties, check out the following article by Molly Kleinman:

She discusses the importance of drilling down into their “legal-code” language rather than relying purely on the ambiguities of the “human-readable” language. Furthermore, she gives good examples that might otherwise be confusing.

Aside from CC licenses, commercial use is typically spelled out in the copyrighted work’s licensing agreement, should one exist prior to requesting reuse or paying for the privilege of reproducing it. Read the license carefully.

It is important to note, though, that the Fair Use clause of the Copyright Act still supersedes how copyrighted work can be reproduced—regardless of “non-commercial” status—as long as the  use falls under the umbrella of Fair Use practices.

Where to find free media resources….

Some quick search tools that will filter based on CC license type:

Check out the sections below, though, for a wealth of great free resources based on media type.

Free Video Resource List

NOTE: To search Youtube for Creative Commons licensed video, you must follow the search term with a comma and “creativecommons” all run together (no quotes). Here’s silent instructional video with steps on searching and then downloading video from Youtube:

Free Audio Resource List

Below are some terrific sites for collecting  creative commons or public domain audio resources. Be aware that you have to create a free account and be logged into most of them to get download links for the audio.

Sometimes SoundCloud Download links can be hard to find. Refer to the infographic below to see where the download link can be buried. Not all songs are designated by the owner for download, though.

Convert or Snag Audio

Some creators will post work to websites and designate their work available to reuse under a CC license but then forget to make it downloadable. Should that happen, you can still use an online converter service to snag the audio and download it. Check out the Clip Converter website ( ).

Animate CC – The Basics + Basic Video Project

Tutorials for Learning Basic Animate CC Skills + Collaborative Project Techniques

This set of tutorials is geared toward helping students complete the second project for MAT-120, but it can still be used by others to learn specific skills using Animate CC (formerly calledFlash Professional). Below is an outline of what you will find in the tutorials. Some students might be able to skip some lessons based on their current knowledge of certain tools and concepts.

Continue reading Animate CC – The Basics + Basic Video Project

WordPress Installation and Backup in cPanel Class Server

A Web Developer’s Process

While there are simple single-click installation options on most servers nowadays for installing WordPress, these obfuscate important details of the installation process that you should understand.Using single-click installations without knowing how the application really works is dangerous if you become dependent upon a site and later cannot properly maintain, backup, restore, and repair it when it breaks.

It is incumbent upon you as a designer-developer and webmaster to truly understand all the ins-and-outs of how WordPress works, troubleshooting WP, managing the files and database, and ensuring that you always have full backups at all times and know how to restore them. 

That being said, below are tutorials laid out in distinct phases that will help you understand all of the important steps in installing and backing up a WordPress site….

Full Video Playlist


Build Your First WordPress Self-Hosted Site

WordPress Basics

The playlist of video tutorials on this page will walk you through the steps necessary for understanding the basic organization of WordPress’ content entry options, plugins, themes, and settings. Furthermore, it addresses content strategy, navigation strategy, how to begin understanding what should be a post vs. a page, how to create and publish the content, and how to decide on a theme that’s right for your needs.

Below are two sections:

  1. where you can either access individual video links from the playlist, seeing the specific topics covered in each
  2. the full playlist

View Full Playlist Here:


CSS Properties Compilation

What this page does

This page is a compilation of commonly used CSS properties and is intended to make it easier for students to search for the type of property they might need to use based on the general categories above. To learn more about each property on this page and its syntax and acceptable values, click the property name. It will take you to the exact page for detailed information on each property.

CSS Font Properties




Sets all the font properties in one declaration


Specifies the font family for text


Specifies the font size of text


Specifies the font style for text


Specifies whether or not a text should be displayed in a small-caps font


Specifies the weight of a font


CSS Text Properties




Sets the color of text


Specifies the text direction/writing direction


Increases or decreases the space between characters in a text


Sets the line height


Specifies the horizontal alignment of text


Specifies the decoration added to text


Specifies the indentation of the first line in a text-block


Specifies the shadow effect added to text


Controls the capitalization of text


Used together with the direction property to set or return whether the text should be overridden to support multiple languages in the same document


Sets the vertical alignment of an element


Specifies how white-space inside an element is handled


Increases or decreases the space between words in a text

CSS3 Text Properties




Specifies how to align the last line of a text


A shorthand for setting text-emphasis-style and text-emphasis-color in one declaration


Specifies how justified text should be aligned and spaced


Specifies how overflowed content that is not displayed should be signaled to the user


Specifies line breaking rules for non-CJK scripts


Allows long words to be able to be broken and wrap onto the next line



CSS List Properties




Sets all the properties for a list in one declaration


Specifies an image as the list-item marker


Specifies if the list-item markers should appear inside or outside the content flow


Specifies the type of list-item marker


CSS Background Properties




Sets all the background properties in one declaration


Sets whether a background image is fixed or scrolls with the rest of the page


Sets the background color of an element


Sets the background image for an element


Sets the starting position of a background image


Sets how a background image will be repeated

CSS3 Background Properties




A shorthand property for setting all the background properties in one declaration


Specifies the painting area of the background


Specifies one or more background images for an element


Specifies where the background image(s) is/are positioned


Specifies the size of the background image(s)


CSS Border Properties




Sets all the border properties in one declaration


Sets all the bottom border properties in one declaration


Sets the color of the bottom border


Sets the style of the bottom border


Sets the width of the bottom border


Sets the color of the four borders


Sets all the left border properties in one declaration


Sets the color of the left border


Sets the style of the left border


Sets the width of the left border


Sets all the right border properties in one declaration


Sets the color of the right border


Sets the style of the right border


Sets the width of the right border


Sets the style of the four borders


Sets all the top border properties in one declaration


Sets the color of the top border


Sets the style of the top border


Sets the width of the top border


Sets the width of the four borders


CSS3 Rounded Corners Properties




A shorthand property for setting all the four border-*-*-radius properties


Defines the shape of the border of the top-left corner


Defines the shape of the border of the top-right corner


Defines the shape of the border of the bottom-right corner


Defines the shape of the border of the bottom-left corner


CSS3 Shadow Properties




Adds one or more shadows to an element


Adds one or more shadows to a text


CSS Margin Properties




A shorthand property for setting the margin properties in one declaration


Sets the bottom margin of an element


Sets the left margin of an element


Sets the right margin of an element


Sets the top margin of an element


CSS Padding Properties




A shorthand property for setting all the padding properties in one declaration


Sets the bottom padding of an element


Sets the left padding of an element


Sets the right padding of an element


Sets the top padding of an element


CSS Dimension Properties




Sets the height of an element


Sets the maximum height of an element


Sets the maximum width of an element


Sets the minimum height of an element


Sets the minimum width of an element


Sets the width of an element


CSS Display/Visibility Properties




Specifies how an element should be displayed


Specifies whether or not an element should be visible


CSS Float Properties




Specifies on which sides of an element where floating elements are not allowed to float


Specifies whether or not an element should float


Specifies what happens if content overflows an element’s box


Specifies what to do with the left/right edges of the content if it overflows the element’s content area


Specifies what to do with the top/bottom edges of the content if it overflows the element’s content area


CSS Positioning Properties




Sets the bottom margin edge for a positioned box


Clips an absolutely positioned element


Specifies the type of cursor to be displayed


Sets the left margin edge for a positioned box


Specifies what happens if content overflows an element’s box


Specifies what to do with the left/right edges of the content if it overflows the element’s content area


Specifies what to do with the top/bottom edges of the content if it overflows the element’s content area


Specifies the type of positioning for an element


Sets the right margin edge for a positioned box


Sets the top margin edge for a positioned box


Sets the stack order of an element

PHP – Adding Functions to Your Template

This demonstration series will show you how you can create and include a ‘functions.php’ external file to your Project1 template.

Specifically, you will learn how to create and implement a script as a user-defined function that dynamically names the following on all the pages:

  • <title></title>
  • the banner area’s <h2></h2>
  • a class/ID name to be used wherever you wish
  • <img> source file and its alt text

You will see how to implement it by declaring the function in an external ‘functions.php’ file, including the ‘functions.php’ file inside the ‘’ file, and also calling the function inside the ‘’ file so that you can use its global scope variables anywhere within the template’s component pages.

Lastly, the demo also explains the difference between echoing the function’s results vs. using the stored variable values generated by a function from an external include() page.

Continue reading PHP – Adding Functions to Your Template

JS – Project1 – Mobile JS Menu (+ more)

This demo series will show you how you can make your navigation mobile friendly and accessible using jQuery whether javascript is enabled on the client-side or not.

JS Mobile Menu Demo Series

This series is approximately 45 minutes long. You should expect it to take at least twice that time to do complete the work.

1 – Menu setup (18min)
2 – jQuery setup and custom script (17min)
3 – Styling the menu for proper behavior (13min)



Continue reading JS – Project1 – Mobile JS Menu (+ more)

CSS – Creating a Mobile-First Design Template

Creating a Mobile-First Design Template for Your PHP Project

This demo will give you guidance in styling a web page with HTML5 markup from a mobile-first design approach. It covers the following concepts, principles, and methods:

  • the php/html starter file’s proper markup
  • how to add Google Fonts to a design
  • using a viewport/device-width meta tag
  • removing native browser styling with a ‘reset’ css file
  • using @viewport and @-ms-viewport in CSS
  • designing for smallest screens in mind first
  • using @media queries to alter layout on larger screens
  • styling a baseline for very commonly used elements

To follow along with these videos using the exact same markup,  download the template ‘project1’ folder in a zipped file. After downloading, unzip and place the unzipped folder into your “htdocs/” folder to work on the files.

Creating a Mobile-First Responsive Site Template
(7-Part Video Demo Playlist BELOW)

Approximately 2.5 hours of demo. Expect the work you do to create your own base design template to take a minimum of 8 hours.

00 – Getting Started (19:37)
01 – Start Styling (27:49)
02 – Styling the Banner (24:46)
03 – Styling the Banner’s NAV (22:25)
04 – Styling the Baseline Content (20:53)
05 – Styling the Baseline Content (Continued 14:26)
06 – Styling the Footer / Using Additional Breakpoints (22:51)


Want to learn more about using Google Web Fonts?

Check this video out.


Useful Project Resources


Installing XAMPP on your MAC personal computer

XAMPP stands for “X (one of four OSs), Apache, MySQL, PHP, PERL” and is used to enable your personal computer with the web and database tools necessary to host its own dynamically driven websites for testing and development purposes. The following tutorial video demonstrations will show you the steps to set your computer up as a “localhost” server on a Mac. Continue reading XAMPP – TURN YOUR MAC INTO A DEVELOPMENT SERVER

JS : Single Page Parallax Resume

What is in this tutorial?

  • Mobile-first design principles
  • Learn how ‘vh’ viewport height works
  • Learn how to vertically and horizontally center elements on page
  • Writing jQuery script for collapsible navigation menu
  • Applying parallax smooth scrolling jQuery script for single page navigation
  • Applying Lightbox 2 jQuery effects to gallery

Please watch all videos below to complete the tutorial.

Continue reading JS : Single Page Parallax Resume

PHP – Lesson 10 : Functions

Functions Overview

What is a function?

  • A function is a way to write modularized code that can be used more than once just by calling out its function name in a script.

Where do I find functions?

  • Functions are largely what PHP is built on. PHP has over 3000 built-in functions you can use so you don’t have to reinvent the wheel every time you want to do a set of tasks.
  • You can also create your own custom funtions to perform custom tasks.

What are advantages of using functions?

  • For tasks you need to repeat in several places in the code, you can simple call out a funtion from a centralized place instead of writing the same coded over and over.
  • When updating the code, you can update a single function in one place rather than modifying code in several places.
  • They usually speed up the processing time of your pages.

How do I make my own function?

Let’s say you want to create a function that automatically adds the sales tax into a subtotal to give you a final price. We will call it “Total” and the tax will be 7.75%, as follows:

  • function Tax($subtotal) {
    return $subtotal *= .0775;

What this will do is take any value called by the “Tax” function and substitute that passed value in place of “$subtotal.” For instance, if we are explicit and want to find the tax on twenty dollars, we could invoke the function as follows:

  • $tax = Tax(20);
    echo "\$$tax";

This would result in outputting the string (no quotes) of ” $1.55 “. You could produce the same results by running the function on a variable instead of a raw number:

  • $amount = 20;
    $tax = Tax($amount);
    echo "\$$tax";

Variable Scope And Functions

It is important to note that functions are self-contained. What happens with variables inside of a function is invisible to the rest of the script outside of the function. When variables are passed as arguments to a function, only the value is passed; thus, once the function completes its task, the variables inside of it cease to exist, and they are only created or invoked again if the function is reused.

“The scope of a variable – in other words, where it can be used – depends entirely on where the variable is defined. A variable defined in a function or as one of its parameters is limited in scope to that function. It cannot be seen outside the function. Equally, a function has no knowledge of or influence over variables outside.”

(from Adobe Dreamweaver CS5 with PHP by David Powers)

Demo : Create a User-Defined Gallery Function

To learn how you can create a user-defined gallery function, go to the “Creating a Gallery Function” demo page. It will show you how you can write a customizable gallery function that scans gallery directories to populate thumbnail galleries with larger lightbox effect opening images. No database necessary. . . . Additionally, it covers the concepts important to reusable code (i.e. functions).